Another key variation in formulas across regions is the use of Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate, Ethoxylated Alcohols and Amine Oxides.
Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate and Ethoxylated Alcohols are used only where the concentration of other surfactants in a formulation is low, and even then in very few countries. Of the countries included in the cost/composition analyses above, around five use Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate and around eight use Ethoxylated Alcohols.
Countries and products that don’t use Cocamidopropyl Betaine often replace it with Amine Oxides. They’re found in formulations across North America, and a number of EU formulations, but they’re rare in other regions.
Amine Oxides are especially challenging in terms of formulations, as they often contain residues of hydrogen peroxide. In higher concentrations, that impacts chemical and physical stability characteristics such as fragrance and color.
Amine Oxides are also a challenge for stability in enzymatic detergents. Residual enzyme activity after storage is impacted by the presence of hydrogen peroxide in lauramine oxide and laurylamidopropyl AO. Varying pH levels further affect residual enzyme activity.
However, it is possible to achieve good enzyme stability even in the presence of Amine Oxides through the addition of oxygen scavengers. This solution is typical of formulating with enzymes. It’s simple as long as you take action to lesson the impact of (or avoid) ingredients that affect the stability of the enzyme you wish to include..
The table below is based on extensive internal testing. We found that in general residual enzyme activity wasn’t impacted enough to affect performance - even in harsh pH conditions - if we used this table as a guide.